Sunday, May 29, 2011

Pearl is a kind of precious aquatic products in China

China ZhenZhuYe export, production, marketing
Pearl is a kind of precious aquatic products in China, occupies the fishery irreplaceable position. The purpose of writing this article is to hope fishery boundary colleague to our joint efforts, the faster ZhenZhuYe better forward development.

A ZhenZhuYe development in the world, China's contribution
China is the world find and use pearl first national, according to ancient "ya-men yugong" account: 22 century BC, namely XiaYu era has determined the tributes to dedicate to the emperor pearls, dating from about 4,200-4,500 years. China is also the world's earliest culturing pearls, according to state PangYuanYing with the song dynasty, detailed records of wenchang mixed with the record of the Chinese artificially yukon bead who founded the methods and XieGong said: "does a ruler slightly raise bead law... take water immersion, freshwater mussel clams, and meanwhile its opening, the rush with bead (department artificially bead nuclear -- the author notes) cast, frequency change by two autumn, water... do" is a natural pearls are. The record shows that China already artificially bred dating to 1,500 years pearl. In southern song dynasty, huzhou YeJinYang use plait grain champions clam, nurturing to attach the "Buddha like shell pearl", this is a great inventions in history for foreign scholars praise, dating from about 900 years,. But foreign artificially yukon bead is the earliest record of Swedish naturalist Linnaeus (Linne), he achieved a handle in 1761, it only 232 years pearl than Chinese late 1200.

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In the ancient China is the country's main pearl, Egypt and Persia kingdom, ancient Greek and India, but because natural the oyster's out bead rate very low (only PPM), therefore yield scarce. In the 19th century, China's pearl culture in late qing dynasty, introduced into Japan, Japan in the 1940s ZhenZhuYe started to develop, in 1966, Japan pearl workstation, when yield to 7,000 104 tons. According to the statistics, the period around 20 years, the foreign exchange income reached Japanese pearl 20 billion dollars, Japan's fisheries bound for economic reconstruction after the war, the country has made an important contribution. In 1969, Japan 111.3 tons, pearl production reaches the highest annual become history. Since then, because water pollution and other social factors, pearl production fell sharply, basic swinging in between 30-40 tons of production. Instead, since the 1970s onwards, China pearl production sharply. In 1979 the world for more than 60 tons pearl production, including Japan, China for 35 tons for 25 tons, its national production Jane tarantula area 3-5 tons. In 1980 the world pearl production, including Japan 70 tons for 35 tons, still Chinese pearl production rose to 38 tons, the first time in more than Japan, the world's total output. 1984 China pearl output reach 117 tons, surpassed Japan in 1969 history maximum yield. In 1986, the Chinese province of jiangsu reached 137 tons of Jane spinner, namely China a provincial yield overtook Japan's highest historical production. Since the 1980s, China ZhenZhuYe entered a new stage of rapid development, according to authoritative statistical reports: 1996 Chinese pearl 2027.4 tons (including the total output of freshwater pearl 2002 tons, seawater bead 25.4 tons). It is reported that: 1999 world pearl production, including China for 1262 cataract tons for 1220 tons, occupied 95% (including freshwater pearl 1200 tons, seawater bead 20 tons). Although the above statistics may be low, data indicate is incomplete statistics, but still has important reference value, the statistics fully prove that China has been more than 20 years pearl production more than the other countries, literally become the world, for the world ZhenZhuYe pearl kingdoms made important contribution to the development of.
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Second, China export development trend of pearl
China's pearl in the 1980s before, mainly exports, after that, especially in the 1990s, the domestic sales also rapidly rising, into a new stage of synchronous development at home and abroad, now will China pearl export news review is as follows:
1, China pearl exports changes: 1971 China's first exports to Japan pearl only 0.6 kilograms, 1972 rise to 11.738 kilograms per kilogram of 4574 yuan), 1974 608.5 kilograms (for per kg of 117 dollars) in 1977 rise up quickly to 6.5 tons per kilogram of 1981 yuan). In 1981 for 11.4 tons, 1985, 1992 to 34.36 tons, according to national 31 customs statistics, total exports of 699.4 tons, pearl 345.51 tons, accounting for export Japan sold Hong Kong area, 332.92 49.4 47.6%, other of tons, the 3% to America, Europe and southeast Asia sales. According to the China economic news other reports: a year in the United States in 1993 imports from China pearl (mainly light not pearl) about 30 tons, is worth around $1.5 billion, including $1,800 / kg of high-grade bead, general size 5 millimeter above pearl is very hot, $1,300 per kilogram of low-grade bead, serve the masses of consumers welcome immigrants-and.

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2, China light not pearl export countries and regions, according to foreign exchange earning trends in 1989 statistics, except Japan without statistics outside, Chinese freshwater pearl exports earn foreign exchange market as 30762 nokias: U.S. dollar, Germany 29976 dollars, Switzerland 25135 dollars, Hong Kong 15282 dollars.

Three, China pearl always exports changes: 1992 China pearl always 699.4 tons, foreign export 3759 million dollars; In 1994, foreign export 469 tons 1.48:1 billion dollars, 1995 485.4 tons, foreign export 2.8 billion dollars.

According to reports in 1999 world pearl production value for $5.4 billion, China accounted for $380 million, now and aquatic products compare total export surplus, according to the latest statistics published agriculture fisheries bureau (see "China fishery economy" in 2003, 395-411 11 pages) : 2002 46.9 billion for seafood total exports, imports $24.2 million us dollars, actual surplus 22.7 billion dollars for. In 2002 because of have no now pearl total exports, so not to directly compare data, only for relatively, namely 1999 China pearl exports quite in 2002, the Chinese seafood export surplus 16.7%, this is a big BiE, fully said

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